Was ist Qualität?

Qualität

Qualität ist keine einer Institution, einem Programm oder einem Produkt inhärente, physikalisch messbare Eigenschaft.
Qualität ist vielmehr ein Konstrukt aus Wissen, Erwartungen und Gefühlen des Betrachters.

  • Das Wissen über ein Produkt (i.w.S.) kann durch transparente Produktionsprozesse erweitert werden.
  • Die Erwartungen an ein Produkt werden durch Wissen und Bedürfnisse geprägt.
  • Aber erst durch Bestätigung des Wissens und Erfüllung der Erwartungen entstehen Gefühle wie Zufriedenheit und Vertrauen, die – auf das Produkt projiziert – eine Vorstellung von Qualität ermöglichen.

Lässt sich Qualität managen?

Qualitätsmanager akkordieren Produktionsprozesse und Marketingmaßnahmen, um bei den Kunden und Shareholder-Gruppen Zufriedenheit mit und Vertrauen in ihre Produkte zu wecken oder zu sichern. Daraus entsteht Qualität.

13 Myths and 1 Truth about Standardization

Misconceptions sometimes shed a false light on standards and myths begin to develop. Myths about standards are scare stories based on hearsay, rumors and half-truths, many of which have been repeated so often that they have become accepted truths within the public and media consciousness.

  1. Participation in standardization committees is for free.

    • No! – registration fees on national level; travel expenses on CEN and ISO level apply.
  2. Members of standardization committees are delegates of their respective companies or associations.

    • No! – They represent various stakeholder groups on an individual basis. Membership (and registration fees) cannot be delegated to colleagues.
  3. Members of CEN and ISO technical committees are commissioned by their NSB.

    • No! – Members of CEN and ISO TCs are representatives of their countries. A national delegation consists of up to 3 individuals with one of them being the Head of Delegation (HoD). They have to represent the national opinions rather than their own ones.
      Members of TC-Working Groups are experts on an individual basis.
      Members of both TCs and WGs have to be nominated by their country’s National Standardization Body (NSB) (and registered in the Global Directory) for assuring their right to vote. Any expenses have to be covered by the experts themselves (or their companies or organisations).
  4. Everybody has to comply with the Standard.

    • No! – Standards are not laws/directives nor regulations and as such are voluntary for individuals.
      But: Standards may become part of a law or a contract or similar legal documents by reference.
      But: European Standards (EN) must be transferred into identical national standards by the 33 countries who are CEN members. And ISO Standards are frequently adopted as European and/or national Standards.
  5. Standards are for free.

    • No! – Standards are published and sold by national standardization bodies only.
  6. The experts are the authors of their standards.

    • No! – Experts and their committees are not authors of their standards. Instead, the NSBs hold full copy and exploitation rights.
  7. Large countries have more experts and consequently more votes.

    • No! – Each country has one vote.
      But: On CEN level, votes are sometimes weighted, mainly by the seize of a country’s population and GDP.
  8. Standards are good text books.

    • No! – Standards primarily define requirements (what SHALL be done) and recommendations (what SHOULD be done) for those who want to comply with the standards (voluntarily). Further, standards are guidelines sometimes for what CAN or MAY be done.
  9. Standards are adopted by unanimity (consent).

    • No! – On national level, draft standards must be adopted by more than 3/4 of the experts present. In this case, the Committee may request the Board of Presidents to permit a majority vote. Moreover, comments to a draft standard are to be adopted by at least 3/4 of the experts present.
    • No! – On CEN level, 71 percent ‚yes‘ of the weighted votes are required to pass a draft standard.
      Further, for acceptance of a new project proposal a two-thirds (or more) majority of the votes cast (abstentions not counted) shall be in favour of the proposal IF at least 5 members express commitment to participate AND if no ‚fundamental disagreement‘ is cast.
    • No! – On ISO level, 75 percent ‚yes‘ of the votes cast (one vote per country) are required to pass a draft standard. Abstentions are never taken into account.
  10. Standardization Institutes work for free because they are NPOs (not for profit organizations).

    • No! – Most of them receive membership fees and have additional funding schemes with the public and private sector for covering their fixed costs. Their running costs, however, have to be covered by revenues.
  11. Standardization Institutes keep an armada of experts under contract.

    • No! – Experts are customers who are serviced in their pursuit of new standards with meeting infrastructure and procedural expertise.
  12. Standards last forever.

    • No! – They have to be revised every 5 years at least. They may be confirmed, amended or withdrawn after a ’systematic review‘.
  13. Standards tell you how to run your business.

    • No! – They are just a compilation of good practice with
      – safety requirements,
      – quality requirements,
      – qualification and competence requirements,
      – managerial requirements,
      – design requirements (for compatibility).
  14. Standards harmonize the markets.

    • Yes! – They contribute to a level playing field for all the market participants across Europe and worldwide.

Qualitätsmanagement by Aquarium

Qualität hat ihren Preis. Billiges Futter/Dünger hat oft nicht den Nährwert, verdirbt rasch und versaut das Wasser.

Bei der Anschaffung entscheiden sich viele Parameter, die später nicht mehr verändert werden können:

  • Die Größe des Beckens entscheidet über Art und Anzahl der zu pflegende Insassen. Nicht alle Arten eignen sich für das Gesellschaftsbecken. Manche Arten brauchen eigene Reviere, während andere gern im Schwarm schwimmen.
  • Die Beleuchtung entscheidet darüber, welche Pflanzen infrage kommen. Ist die Leuchte zu kurz, gibt es dunkle Ecken, in denen keine Pflanze wachsen möchte. Reaktionen sind Schiefstellung (Wachstum zum Licht), Kümmerwuchs oder Absterben. Nicht alle Pflanzen brauchen dieselbe Lichtintensität. Oben ist es heller als unten. Leuchtend rot gefärbte Blätter stellen einen Schutzmechanismus gegen zuviel Licht dar. Schnellwüchsige Pflanzen beschatten langsam wachsende und können sie töten.
  • Die Zusammensetzung des Wassers entscheidet über die zu pflegenden Arten. Hartes und alkalisches Wasser kann man nur mit viel Aufwand für Fische aus sauren und weichen Gewässern aufbereiten. Fische im falschen Milieu (vgl. Arbeitsklima) vermehren sich nicht (unproduktiv) und werden leichter krank.